Inicio de la venta:
jueves, 4 de abril de 2013 a las 3:43
Fin de la venta:
domingo, 1 de marzo de 2020 a las 12:28
The Turkmenistan Republic (formerly the Turkmen Soviet
Socialist Republic) covers the territory of the Trans-Caspian
Region of Turkestan, the Charjiui Vilayet of Bukhara and the part
of Khiva located on the right bank of the Oxus. Bordered on the
north by the Autonomous Kara-Kalpak Republic (a constituent of
Uzbekistan), by Iran and Afghanistan on the south, by the Usbek
Republic on the east and the Caspian Sea on the west. It has an
area of 186,400 sq. mi. (488,100 sq. km.) and a population of 3.5
million. Capital: Ashkhabad (formerly Poltoratsk). Main occupation
is agricultural products including cotton and maize. It is rich
in minerals, oil, coal, sulphur and salt and is also famous for its
carpets, Turkoman horses and Karakui sheep.
The Turkomans arrived in Trancaspia as nomadic Seluk
Turks in the 11th century. It often became subjected to one of the
neighboring states. Late in the 19th century the Czarist Russians
invaded with their first victory at Kyzyl Arvat in 1877, arriving in
Ashkhabad in 1882 resulting in submission of the Turkmen tribes.
By March 18,1884 the Transcaspian province of Russian Turkestan
was formed. During WW I the Czarist government tried to
conscript the Turkmen; this led to a revolt in Oct. 1916 under the
leadership of Aziz Chapykov. In 1918 the Turks captured Baku
from the Red army and the British sent a contingent to Merv to prevent
a German-Turkish offensive toward Afghanistan and India.
In mid-1919 a Bureau of Turkestan Moslem Communist Organization
was formed in Moscow hoping to develop one large
republic including all surrounding Turkic areas within a Soviet federation.
A Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was
formed and plans to partition Turkestan into five republics according
to the principle of nationalities was quickly implemented by
Joseph Stalin. On Oct. 27, 1924 Turkmenistan became a Soviet
Socialist Republic and was accepted as a member of the U.S.S.R.
on Jan. 29, 1925. The Bureau of T.M.C.O. was disbanded in 1934.
In Aug. 1990 the Turkmen Supreme Soviet adopted a declaration
of sovereignty followed by a declaration of independence in Oct.
1991 joining the Commonwealth of Independent States in Dec. A
new constitution was adopted in 1992 providing for an executive